Chapter 7 Basic Commands in Linux.

Tags: keyboard shortcutslinux commandsmouse in text mode

Published on: May 14, 2009 by Faheem P.

Chapter 7 Basic Commands in Linux.


Commands are used to do specific tasks in linux.Commands are always helpful in Linux administration support and If you are a good “commander” you can do anything in Linux! But its difficult to remember all the available commands , so use the help provided by linux , as mentioned in the previous chapter ūüôā


Everything on a linux system can be done by typing commands – playing music, browsing, chatting and what not.

Commands can be typed in virtual consoles, pseudo terminals (terminal emulators)


$ usually means – logged in as a regular user
# usually means – logged in as root.

Don’t rely completely on the above statement of $ and #. They can be changed by changing the PS1 environment variable.

The Syntax:-

command -space- options -space- arguments
Command : ls , mv, cp
Options : -h , –help, –version, -V
Arguments : anything other than options passed to command

eg: ls -la /usr

Basic Commands:-

ls Р-a, -F, -l, -1, -A, -t, -R        : lists the files
cd -> dir, /usr , . , ../, .. , –¬† ¬† : change the directory
cp                                        : copy
mv                                       : move
rm                                       : remove
mkdir,rmdir -> -rf and -p options    : make a directory, remove a directory
more/less                            : file perusal filter for crt viewing, less is opposite of more
cat                                      : concatenate files and print on the standard output
head/tail                             : head-output the first part of files,tail-output the last part of files
find/locate/whereis/type –> -exec, -ok, -print0, -type, -uid, -inum, con?, con*, *.conf, “*.conf”, ?conf*
–> locate searches DB and full path, not just filename, while find is relatime and searches filename — -r , -i, -n
cut -f 1,4,5 -d “:” filename
clear                                   : clear the screen/console
date/cal                              : to display the current date/calender
df                                       : report file system disk space usage
finger                                 : user information lookup program
man                                   : an interface to the on-line reference manuals
nano/joe/vi/ed¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬† ¬† ¬†¬† ¬† ¬† ¬†¬† : a text base editor’s
passwd                               : change user password
pwd                                   : displays the present working directory
ifconfig                              : configure a network interface
init                                    : process management daemon
ping                                   : send ICMP ECHO_REQUEST to network hosts
ps                                      : report a snapshot of the current processes.
rm/shred                            : remove files or directories/overwrite a file to hide its contents, and optionally delete it
route                                  : show / manipulate the IP routing table
tracroute                             : traces route to a network host discovering MTU along this path
sudo                                   : execute a command as another user
top                                     : display Linux tasks
touch                                  : change file timestamps
w/who/whoami                   : Show who is logged on and what they are doing
which                                 : locate a command
grep -> -r , -i , -n, -v ; man 7 regex ; egrep = grep -E : print lines matching a pattern
kill                                     : send a signal to a process
talk/write/wall/mail            : send a message to another user
tar/cpio/gzip                       : The GNU version of the tar archiving utility, compress or expand files
split                                    : split a file into pieces

Bash Keyboard Shortcuts :-

Ctrl + A – moves cursor to beginning
Ctrl + E – moves cursor to end
Ctrl + h / backspace – Deletes one character
Ctrl + c – Terminate the current executing command, if any and returns to shell
Ctrl + d – Logout
Ctrl + s – Screenlock
Ctrl + q – Unlock screenlock
Ctrl + w – Deletes last word
Ctrl + u – Deletes entire line
Ctrl + k – Clears command line from cursor position to end of line
Ctrl + y – pastes it back
Ctrl + T – Transpose the character on which the cursor rests and the preceding character.
Esc + T  РTranspose the word on which the cursor rests and the preceding word.
tab – Command / filename completion
Ctrl + R – reverse search on command history
Esc+F or Ctrl + -> – Moves right by a word
Esc+B or Ctrl + <- – Move cursor one word left
Ctrl + f or Right Arrow – Move cursor one position right.
Ctrl+B or Left Arrow – Move cursor one position left.
Alt + . and Esc + . – Picks up the arguments of the previous commands

Using Mouse in text mode:-

Left click – Start the selection
Drag – Select an area
Right Click : End the selection. Copied

Middle mouse button click

Happy Commanding ūüôā

Category : General, Howtos, Linux, Training

Faheem P.

Faheem P.

Faheem enjoys learning new technologies and loves to implement cutting edge solutions. He is one of the most active member in various technical forums and is a familiar face in various brain storming sessions. He takes great pride in being an explorer and the best thing you can be sure about in his room is the backpack!!

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