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Basic Server security guide lines and check list preparation

Tags: LinuxSecurityservervulnerability

Published on: September 29, 2012 by George K.

Basic Server security guide lines and check list preparation


Server security audit is a continuous process and it is important that the servers are secure from vulnerabilities and hacker. As we know, the security of a server is quite essential as long as it is active. In most cases, a  mistake happens during the initial server set up will lead to a disaster at later period of time. In this post I am trying to prepare a check list for the initial server hardening of a cPanel server.  Preparing a check list and follow it will  ensure the implementation of necessary security settings. Let us see some of the Linux Server security Guidelines.

SSH Security

SSH Warning Message

Enable the  default Banner path by modifying the sshd configuration file /etc/ssh/sshd_config . For that open the SSHD configuration file in your favourite editor and then search for the directive “Banner”. By default it will be disabled in most installations, so the entry would look like

#Banner /etc/issue.net

Now remove the comment tag and specify the banner file, by  the common practice is to use /etc/issue , however you can use your own file.  Now the entry would look like

Banner /etc/issue

Check whether the file exists. If so edit it with the warning message. Otherwise create or open the file /etc/issue add the warning message.

I use the following one. You can use your own content to make the warning


Authorized access only!

# Disconnect IMMEDIATELY if you are not an authorized user!!! #

# All actions Will be monitored and recorded #

# Unauthorized access is forbidden and will be prosecuted by law #


Once the file is saved, we need to restart the service. Use the following command to restart SSHD

/etc/init.d/sshd restart

Once it is restarted, ensure that the message pops up for all SSH access.

Custom SSH port

Changing the SSH port to a custom one will increase security. This can be performed by changing the default value assigned to the directive “Port” in the configuration file /etc/ssh/sshd_config

Port 22666

Once the modification is completed,  restart the sshd server and check whether you are able to connect to the new port.

You can check  it using the following command

$ telnet  22666


Connected to

Escape character is ‘^]’.


Once you are able to connect, login to the server and confirm everything is working. Don’t close the current shell until the modification is confirmed to be working. Otherwise you might get locked out from the server.

Disable Direct root access

Disabling direct root access provides two levels of security. The login needs to be performed as a normal ssh user first and then switch to root user.  This necessitates two valid logins and passwords. Also  only privileged users are permitted to switch to root, that too provides another level of security.

To disable direct root login,  modify the  configuration file and disable the corresponding directive to look like the following one

PermitRootLogin no

SSH user creation

Existence of an SSH user who can switch to root is essential when direct root access is disabled. The process is simple, you simply need to create a normal ssh user and then add the user to wheel group .  For eg. I have created the user as “admin” and  below is the commands I used to complete the process

adduser admin
passwd admin
usermod -g wheel username

Changing the group can be done either  through WHM or by editting the /etc/group file.  Confirm the process by performing the following test

#grep wheel /etc/group


It confirms that the ssh user “admin” is a member of wheel group. Since all wheel group users are privileged to switch to superuser,  he can switch to the root account.

Restart the sshd service and once it is done. Try to login to the server as root and it should fail.

Securing /tmp Partition

To protect your server from local and remote exploits being executed from your /tmp folder,  we need to  mount it using noexec. To mount /tmp and /var/tmp with noexec and nosuid on your server, modify /etc/fstab and put the entry like this

/dev/sda5 /tmp ext3 noexec,nosuid 1 2

On cPanel servers,. there is a script to perform the task. You simply need to execute the following script as root


Confirm the modification by executing the command “mount” and you should be able to see the options on the result.

Basic Firewall Settings

Firewalls are essential to identify and defend attacks. I am listing a few essential Firewalls to be implemented on a Linux server.


Malware detection is quite difficult and demanding on a shared hosting environment.Maldet is a server security audit tool which  will help you to identify the infected files and quarantine them. Follow the steps to perform the installation

cd /usr/local/src

wget http://www.rfxn.com/downloads/maldetect-current.tar.gz
tar -xzvf maldetect-current.tar.gz
cd maldetect-*
sh install.sh

Once this is installed, you should be able to perform various tests using the command “maldet ”


CSF and LFD is another useful tool in server security audit.It provides network and access level security. Before proceeding with CSF installation, make sure to remove pre existing firewall installations like apf. Having two firewalls running at the same time is a recipe for problems and could make your server unstable or unusable.

CSF and LFD are very easy to install and to configure – especially if you are using a cpanel & WHM server.

cd /usr/local/src

wget http://www.configserver.com/free/csf.tgz

tar -xvzf csf.tgz

cd csf


Once the installation is complete, restart CSF in Testing mode

/etc/init.d/csf restart

once it is up, check whether you are able to access the server and other services from outside using another shell. This includes ftp, mail (in and out), http, cpanel, whm, etc .Make sure you are able to login to the server using SSH using the port configured. Once everything is confirmed to be of working, disable testing mode

vi /etc/csf/csf.conf

Then locate the directive


change it to


Then restart CSF

/etc/init.d/csf restart

Once CSF installed you can manage  CSF firewall from WHM >>CSF Security & Firewall option under “Plugin” section. CSF/LFD comes pre-configured for a cpanel/WHM server and so there is not that much to do after the installation.


Rootkit detection is difficult because a rootkit may be able to subvert the software that is intended to find it.  Identification of  root kits is essential if you are working on a hacked machine.  There is high possibility that the binaries get altered. Rootkit identification is performed through various applications and Rkhunter is one of the most popular one. Below are the steps to perform the installation

cd /usr/local/src

download the latest version from the URL http://sourceforge.net/projects/rkhunter/files/rkhunter/

here I am using the following one

wget http://sourceforge.net/projects/rkhunter/files/latest/download?source=files

tar -xzvf rkhunter-1.4.0.tar.gz

cd rkhunter-1.4.0


Once it is installed check for rootkits, using the command

rkhunter -c

cPanel and Service Management

cPanel is the most crucial application on the server and through which we manage all other services. Below are some of setting we commonly use to secure and optimise the server performance.

Upgrade to the latest version

WHM -> Server configuration -> Update preferences -> Cpanel and WHM updates -> select the Release tier to “Release”

All other can be selected to be “Automatic”

Then execute the following from the shell “/scripts/upcp

After completion of the process check the version on your WHM and compare it with the release version of cPanel

Recompile php and apache

Recompile Apache and php with the required modules using the script /scripts/easyapache . After completion of the process, make sure apache is up and php shows new compilation date and compiled modules.

Disable functions which are known to be threats security, by adding the following line on the corresponding location of php.ini

disable_functions = “show_source, system, shell_exec, passthru, exec, phpinfo, popen, proc_open, symlink,proc_close,proc_open, popen, dl, passthru, escapeshellarg, escapeshellcmd, disk_free_space, disk_total_space, sysInfo, memTotal, memUsed, memFree, memCached, memBuffers, get_memory”

Safe_mode protection

In PHP, safe mode is a security feature that was designed to prevent hackers from being able to use PHP scripts to execute commands at the operating system level (such as Linux shell commands).

Open php.ini and enable the directive safe_mode to acivate it.

php -i | grep php.ini

Configuration File (php.ini) Path => /usr/local/lib

Loaded Configuration File => /usr/local/lib/php.ini

safe_mode = On

Eaccelerator session save path

By default the session files will be stored one /tmp/eaccelerator, this can make /tmp  to run out of disk space .  To avoid this issue, change the session save path to some other location say /home/eaccelerator. The steps are as follows

Create the directory /home/eaccelerator and modify the corresponding variable in php.ini file


once the modification is done, restart webserver

Enable SuPHP

Setting up of SuPHP as php handler and enabling apache SuExec, improves security significantly.  You can do this  directly from WHM under the section “Configure PHP and SuExec” ( Main >> Service Configuration >> Configure PHP and SuExec”)

Select SuPHP from the drop down for “PHP 5 Handler” and save.

Change the permission of folders on the server to 755 to obey suphp guide lines

find /home/*/public_html/ -type d -print0 | xargs -0 chmod 0755

Change the file permissions to 644 using the command

find /home/*/public_html/ -type f -not -name “*.pl” -not -name “*.cgi” -not -name “*.sh” -print0 | xargs -0 chmod 0644

Change the permission for .cgi and .pl files to 755

find /home/*/public_html/ -type f -name “*.cgi” -print0 -o -name “*.pl” -print0 -o -name “*.sh” -print0 | xargs -0 chmod 0755

Change ownership of the files to the users

cat /etc/trueuserdomains | awk {‘print $2’} >> users.txt

for i in `cat users.txt`; do chown -R $i:$i /home/$i/public_html/*; echo $i; done

Mod_Sec installation

Installation of Mod-security is essential for defending attacks through web, particularly sql injections. Modsec is an apache module and it needs to be enabled using /scripts/easyapahce if not install it manually.

Reference URL


Below are steps followed for a quick install

create the necessary directories.

mkdir /etc/httpd/modsecurity.d

mkdir /var/asl

mkdir /var/asl/tmp

mkdir /var/asl/data

mkdir /var/asl/data/msa

mkdir /var/asl/data/audit

mkdir /var/asl/data/suspicious

Change the ownership of directories to that of web server user.  Since we use  cPanel and the default apache user is “nobody” , the command should be given is

chown nobody.nobody /var/asl/data/msa

chown nobody.nobody /var/asl/data/audit

chown nobody.nobody /var/asl/data/suspicious

Change the permissions for the directories as well

chmod o-rx -R /var/asl/data/*

chmod ug+rwx -R /var/asl/data/*

Create necessary directories for future updates.atomicorp.com

mkdir /var/asl/updates

mkdir /var/asl/rules/

mkdir /var/asl/rules/clamav

Create a file to bypass mod_Sec checks. Domains which needs to be bypassed from mod_Sec checks can be mentioned on this file

mkdir /etc/asl

touch /etc/asl/whitelist


cd /usr/local/src

mkdir modsec

cd modsec/

wget http://updates.atomicorp.com/channels/rules/delayed/modsec-2.5-free-latest.tar.gz

tar -xzvf modsec-2.5-free-latest.tar.gz

mkdir /usr/local/apache/conf/modsec_rules

cd modsec

cp * /usr/local/apache/conf/modsec_rules/

cd /usr/local/apache/conf

Take a backup of the existing modsec2.conf

cp -pr modsec2.conf modsec2.conf.bak_ssages


The document instructs to make the modification in the user configuration file ie “/usr/local/apache/conf/modsec2.user.conf” to make it permanent or to withstand cPanel and apache updates. But it didn’t work for me, so made the modification in the main configuration file itself ie /usr/local/apache/conf/modsec2.conf

The file would look like

# cat modsec2.conf

LoadFile /opt/xml2/lib/libxml2.so

LoadFile /opt/lua/lib/liblua.so

LoadModule security2_module modules/mod_security2.so

<IfModule mod_security2.c>

SecRuleEngine On

SecRequestBodyAccess On

SecResponseBodyAccess On

SecResponseBodyMimeType (null) text/html text/plain text/xml

SecResponseBodyLimit 2621440

SecServerSignature Apache

SecComponentSignature 200911012341

SecUploadDir /var/asl/data/suspicious

SecUploadKeepFiles Off

SecAuditEngine RelevantOnly

SecAuditLogRelevantStatus “^(?:5|4(?!04))”

SecAuditLogType Concurrent

SecAuditLog logs/audit_log

SecAuditLogParts ABIFHZ

SecArgumentSeparator “&”

SecCookieFormat 0

SecRequestBodyInMemoryLimit 131072

SecDataDir /var/asl/data/msa

SecTmpDir /tmp

SecAuditLogStorageDir /var/asl/data/audit

SecResponseBodyLimitAction ProcessPartial

SecAuditLogDirMode 0770

SecPcreMatchLimit 150000

SecPcreMatchLimitRecursion 150000

Include /usr/local/apache/conf/modsec_rules/10_asl_antimalware.conf

Include /usr/local/apache/conf/modsec_rules/10_asl_rules.conf

Include /usr/local/apache/conf/modsec_rules/20_asl_useragents.conf

Include /usr/local/apache/conf/modsec_rules/30_asl_antispam.conf

Include /usr/local/apache/conf/modsec_rules/50_asl_rootkits.conf

Include /usr/local/apache/conf/modsec_rules/60_asl_recons.conf

Include /usr/local/apache/conf/modsec_rules/99_asl_jitp.conf


Though there are a lot of custom rules, the mentioned above are sufficient and recommended for a cPanel server. I f you come across the following error

Cpanel Error Messages

Rule execution error – PCRE limits exceeded (-8): (null).

1. Add to your PHP.INI the following:

pcre.backtrack_limit = 150000

pcre.recursion_limit = 150000

2. And make sure your MODSEC2.USER.CONF or /usr/local/apache/conf/modsec2.conf file contains following ( as shown in the sample configuration file above)

SecPcreMatchLimit 150000

SecPcreMatchLimitRecursion 150000

Once everything is configured, check whether there is any syntax errors by using the command

# /usr/local/apache/bin/apachectl configtest

Syntax OK

Then restart the webserver either through cPanel scripts or from the back end scripts

/usr/local/apache/bin/apachectl stop

/usr/local/apache/bin/apachectl startssl

ps aux | grep httpd

Once the webserver is up, we need to ensure that the rules are actually working. For the execute the following command from the shell

wget http://localhost/foo.php?foo=http://www.example.com

If everything is working you should get a 403 error message as given below

# wget http://localhost/foo.php?foo=http://www.example.com

–2012-09-09 18:33:12– http://localhost/foo.php?foo=http://www.example.com

Resolving localhost…

Connecting to localhost||:80… connected.

HTTP request sent, awaiting response… 403 Forbidden

2012-09-09 18:33:12 ERROR 403: Forbidden.

Now confirm the activity of the rules dynamically by checking the apache error log

# tail -f /usr/local/apache/logs/error_log | grep ModSecurity

[Sun Sep 09 18:34:46 2012] [error] [client] ModSecurity: Access denied with code 403 (phase 2). Pattern match “[-_ ]?(?:adipex|suboxone|pseudovent|topamax|trazodone|prevacid|zyrtec|[msg “Atomicorp.com UNSUPPORTED DELAYED Rules: Possible Spam or Restricted content: Pharmacy and/or Drug content detected”] [data ” levitra “] [severity “CRITICAL”] [hostname “kkkkk.com”] [uri “/forum/newthread.php”] [unique_id “UExwxq6Kp9sAAE87RpEAAAAJ”]

Now, you can confirm that everything is configured properly and can proceed to the next step.

WHM Tweaks

Enable the following in Tweak settings

In most cases, the default would be fine. Make sure the following are enabled to avoid spamming

Track email origin via X-Source email headers

Max hourly emails per domain ( default will be unlimited, but a value of 400 would be ideal)

Enable SpamAssassin spam filter

If you plan to provide basic shell access along with all shared account, make sure to restrict it to jailed shell.

Default shell jailed ( if you want to provisde shell access to the clients)

Check for unauthorised wheel group users and remove them if any

Compiler Access – Disable

PHP open_basedir Protection

Shell Fork Bomb Protection

SSH Password Authorization Tweak

Make sure to configure contact details on the cPanel under the section

Server Contacts

Check the following in service configurations. In most cases default sgould be okay , change the following in accordance to your needs


SSL Cipher Suite – PCI recommended

Trace Enable Off

Server Signature Off

Keep-Alive Off

Exim Service configurations

Log sender rates in the exim mainlog ON

RBL: bl.spamcop.net ON

RBL: zen.spamhaus.org ON

Advanced editor

log_selector +all

Manage Service SSL Certificates – ensure that all are installed and are not expired

Service Manager – make sure to configure critical services to be monitored continuesly

Backup – make sure backup is configured as per the requirement

FTP Tweaks

Use pure_ftp as the default FTP server and disable the following settings

Allow Anonymous Logins

Allow Anonymous Uploads

Allow Logins with Root Password

Broken Clients Compatibility

Defaults should be fine for other values

cPanel – manage plugins

make sure clam av and spamassasin are installed

MySQL optimisation too is required and a general pattern may not work here as it varies according to the needs

Category : General, Linux, Troubleshooting

George K.

George K.

George started his career in web hosting and Linux technical support in the year 2004 and is with SupportSages since 2009. He has keen interest in server optimizations, custom security solutions, hacked server recovery, cyber forensic and high availability fail over system design and implementation. George loves long drives and is passionate about art and literature.

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